актуальность прежде всего



Times of Ukraine



actuality first








The Open

Social Tribune



Times of Ukraine - TimesOfU.com






Главная - Home







Advertise with us | Contact us






Реклама у нас | Пишите нам






Encyclopedia of U®












J1  n. (also j) (pl. Js or j's) tenth letter of the alphabet.


J2  abbr. (also j.) Joule(s).


Jab  —v. (-bb-) 1 a poke roughly. B stab. 2 (foll. By into) thrust (a thing) hard or abruptly. —n. 1 abrupt blow, thrust, or stab. 2 colloq. Hypodermic injection. [var. Of job = prod]


Jabber  —v. 1 chatter volubly. 2 utter (words) in this way. —n. Chatter; gabble. [imitative]


Jabot  n. Ornamental frill etc. On the front of a shirt or blouse. [french]


Jacaranda  n. Tropical american tree with trumpet-shaped blue flowers or hard scented wood. [tupi]


Jacinth  n. Reddish-orange zircon used as a gem. [latin: related to *hyacinth]


Jack  —n. 1 device for raising heavy objects, esp. Vehicles. 2 court-card with a picture of a soldier, page, etc. 3 ship's flag, esp. Showing nationality. 4 device using a single-pronged plug to connect an electrical circuit. 5 small white target ball in bowls. 6 a = *jackstone. B (in pl.) Game of jackstones. 7 (jack) familiar form of john, esp. Typifying the common man, male animal, etc. (i'm all right, jack). —v. (usu. Foll. By up) 1 raise with or as with a jack (in sense 1). 2 colloq. Raise (e.g. Prices).  every man jack every person. Jack in slang abandon (an attempt etc.). [familiar form of the name john]


Jackal  n. 1 african or asian wild animal of the dog family, scavenging in packs for food. 2 colloq. Menial. [persian]


Jackanapes  n. Archaic rascal. [earlier jack napes, supposed to refer to the duke of suffolk]


Jackass  n. 1 male ass. 2 stupid person.


Jackboot  n. 1 military boot reaching above the knee. 2 this as a militaristic or fascist symbol.


Jackdaw  n. Grey-headed bird of the crow family.


Jacket  n. 1 a short coat with sleeves. B protective or supporting garment (life-jacket). 2 casing or covering round a boiler etc. 3 = *dust-jacket. 4 skin of a potato. 5 animal's coat. [french]


Jacket potato  n. Potato baked in its skin.


Jack frost  n. Frost personified.


Jack-in-the-box  n. Toy figure that springs out of a box.


Jackknife  —n. 1 large clasp-knife. 2 dive in which the body is bent and then straightened. —v. (-fing) (of an articulated vehicle) fold against itself in an accident.


Jack of all trades  n. Multi-skilled person.


Jack-o'-lantern  n. 1 will-o'-the wisp. 2 pumpkin lantern.


Jack plane  n. Medium-sized joinery plane.


Jack plug  n. Plug for use with a jack (see *jack n. 4).


Jackpot  n. Large prize, esp. Accumulated in a game, lottery, etc.  hit the jackpot colloq. 1 win a large prize. 2 have remarkable luck or success.


Jackrabbit  n. Us large prairie hare.


Jack russell  n. Short-legged breed of terrier.


Jackstone  n. 1 metal etc. Piece used in tossing-games. 2 (in pl.) Game with a ball and jackstones.


Jack tar  n. Sailor.


Jacobean  —adj. 1 of the reign of james i. 2 (of furniture) heavy and dark in style. —n. Jacobean person. [latin jacobus james]


Jacobite  n. Hist. Supporter of james ii after his flight, or of the stuarts.

Jacquard  n. 1 apparatus with perforated cards, for weaving figured fabrics. 2 (in full jacquard loom) loom with this. 3 fabric or article so made. [name of its inventor]


Jacuzzi  n. (pl. -s) propr. Large bath with massaging underwater jets of water. [name of its inventor and manufacturers]


Jade1  n. 1 hard usu. Green stone used for ornaments etc. 2 green colour of jade. [spanish ijada from latin ilia flanks (named as a cure for colic)]


Jade2  n. 1 inferior or worn-out horse. 2 derog. Disreputable woman. [origin unknown]


Jaded  adj. Tired out; surfeited.


J'adoube  int. Chess declaration of the intention to adjust a piece without moving it. [french, = i adjust]


Jag1  —n. Sharp projection of rock etc. —v. (-gg-) 1 cut or tear unevenly. 2 make indentations in. [imitative]


Jag2  n. Slang 1 drinking bout. 2 period of indulgence in an activity, emotion, etc. [originally dial., = load]


Jagged  adj. 1 unevenly cut or torn. 2 deeply indented.  jaggedly adv. Jaggedness n.


Jaguar  n. Large american flesh-eating spotted animal of the cat family. [tupi]


Jail  (also gaol) —n. 1 place for the detention of prisoners. 2 confinement in a jail. —v. Put in jail. [french jaiole, ultimately from latin cavea cage]


Jailbird  n. (also gaolbird) prisoner or habitual criminal.


Jailbreak  n. (also gaolbreak) escape from jail.


Jailer  n. (also gaoler) person in charge of a jail or prisoners.


Jain  —n. Adherent of an indian religion resembling buddhism. —adj. Of this religion.  jainism n. Jainist n. & adj. [hindi]


Jalap  n. Purgative drug from the tuberous roots of a mexican climbing plant. [spanish xalapa, name of a mexican city, from aztec]


Jalopy  n. (pl. -ies) colloq. Dilapidated old vehicle. [origin unknown]


Jalousie  n. Slatted blind or shutter to keep out rain etc. And control light. [french: related to *jealousy]


Jam1  —v. (-mm-) 1 a (usu. Foll. By into, together, etc.) Squeeze, cram, or wedge into a space. B become wedged. 2 cause (machinery etc.) To become wedged or (of machinery etc.) Become wedged and unworkable. 3 a block (a passage, road, etc.) By crowding etc. B (foll. By in) obstruct the exit of (was jammed in). 4 (usu. Foll. By on) apply (brakes etc.) Forcefully or abruptly. 5 make (a radio transmission) unintelligible by interference. 6 colloq. (in jazz etc.) Improvise with other musicians. —n. 1 squeeze, crush. 2 crowded mass (traffic jam). 3 colloq. Predicament. 4 stoppage (of a machine etc.) Due to jamming. 5 (in full jam session) colloq. (in jazz etc.) Improvised ensemble playing. [imitative]


Jam2  n. 1 conserve of boiled fruit and sugar. 2 colloq. Easy or pleasant thing (money for jam).  jam tomorrow promise of future treats etc. That never materialize. [perhaps from *jam1]


Jamb  n. Side post or side face of a doorway, window, or fireplace. [french jambe leg, from latin]


Jamboree  n. 1 celebration. 2 large rally of scouts. [origin unknown]


Jamjar  n. Glass jar for jam.


Jammy  adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 covered with jam. 2 colloq. A lucky. B profitable.


Jam-packed  adj. Colloq. Full to capacity.


Jan.  Abbr. January.


Jangle  —v. (-ling) 1 (cause to) make a (esp. Harsh) metallic sound. 2 irritate (the nerves etc.) By discord etc. —n. Harsh metallic sound. [french]


Janitor  n. 1 doorkeeper. 2 caretaker. [latin janua door]


January  n. (pl. -ies) first month of the year. [latin janus, guardian god of doors]


Jap  n. & adj. Colloq. Often offens. = *japanese. [abbreviation]


Japan  —n. Hard usu. Black varnish, orig. From japan. —v. (-nn-) 1 varnish with japan. 2 make black and glossy. [japan in e. Asia]


Japanese  —n. (pl. Same) 1 a native or national of japan. B person of japanese descent. 2 language of japan. —adj. Of japan, its people, or its language.


Jape  —n. Practical joke. —v. (-ping) play a joke. [origin unknown]

Japonica  n. Flowering shrub with bright red flowers and round edible fruits. [latinized name for japanese]


Jar1  n. 1 a container, usu. Of glass and cylindrical. B contents of this. 2 colloq. Glass of beer. [french from arabic]


Jar2  —v. (-rr-) 1 (often foll. By on) (of sound, manner, etc.) Sound discordant, grate (on the nerves etc.). 2 a (often foll. By against, on) (cause to) strike (esp. Part of the body) with vibration or shock (jarred his neck). B vibrate with shock etc. 3 (often foll. By with) be at variance or in conflict. —n. 1 jarring sound or sensation. 2 physical shock or jolt. [imitative]


Jar3  n.  on the jar ajar. [obsolete char turn: see *ajar, *char2]


Jardinière  n. 1 ornamental pot or stand for plants. 2 dish of mixed vegetables. [french]


Jargon  n. 1 words or expressions used by a particular group or profession (medical jargon). 2 debased or pretentious language. [french]


Jasmine  n. Ornamental shrub with white or yellow flowers. [french from arabic from persian]


Jasper  n. Opaque quartz, usu. Red, yellow, or brown. [french from latin from greek iaspis]


Jaundice  —n. 1 yellowing of the skin etc. Caused by liver disease, bile disorder, etc. 2 disordered (esp. Mental) vision. 3 envy. —v. (-cing) 1 affect with jaundice. 2 (esp. As jaundiced adj.) Affect (a person) with envy, resentment, etc. [french jaune yellow]


Jaunt  —n. Short pleasure trip. —v. Take a jaunt. [origin unknown]


Jaunting car  n. Light horse-drawn vehicle formerly used in ireland.


Jaunty  adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 cheerful and self-confident. 2 sprightly.  jauntily adv. Jauntiness n. [french: related to *gentle]


Javanese  —n. (pl. Same) 1 a native of java. B person of javanese descent. 2 language of java. —adj. (also javan) of java, its people, or its language. [java in indonesia]


Javelin  n. Light spear thrown in sport or, formerly, as a weapon. [french]


Jaw  —n. 1 a upper or lower bony structure in vertebrates containing the teeth. B corresponding parts of certain invertebrates. 2 a (in pl.) The mouth with its bones and teeth. B narrow mouth of a valley, channel, etc. C gripping parts of a tool etc. D grip (jaws of death). 3 colloq. Tedious talk (hold your jaw). —v. Colloq. Speak, esp. At tedious length. [french]


Jawbone  n. Lower jaw in most mammals.


Jaw-breaker  n. Colloq. Long or hard word.


Jay  n. Noisy european bird of the crow family with vivid plumage. [latin gaius, gaia, perhaps from the name gaius: cf. Jackdaw, robin]


Jaywalk  v. Cross a road carelessly or dangerously.  jaywalker n.


Jazz  —n. 1 rhythmic syncopated esp. Improvised music of black us origin. 2 slang pretentious talk or behaviour (all that jazz). —v. Play or dance to jazz.  jazz up brighten or enliven.  jazzer n. [origin uncertain]


Jazzman  n. Jazz-player.


Jazzy  adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 of or like jazz. 2 vivid, showy.


Jcb  n. Propr. Mechanical excavator with a shovel and a digging arm. [j. C. Bamford, name of the makers]


Jcr  abbr. Junior common (or combination) room.


Jealous  adj. 1 resentful of rivalry in love. 2 (often foll. By of) envious (of a person etc.). 3 (often foll. By of) fiercely protective (of rights etc.). 4 (of god) intolerant of disloyalty. 5 (of inquiry, supervision, etc.) Vigilant.  jealously adv. [medieval latin zelosus: related to *zeal]


Jealousy  n. (pl. -ies) 1 jealous state or feeling. 2 instance of this. [french: related to *jealous]


Jeans  n.pl. Casual esp. Denim trousers. [earlier geane fustian, = material from genoa]


Jeep  n. Propr. Small sturdy esp. Military vehicle with four-wheel drive. [originally us, from the initials of general purposes]


Jeepers  int. Us slang expressing surprise etc. [corruption of jesus]


Jeer  —v. (often foll. By at) scoff derisively; deride. —n. Taunt.  jeeringly adv. [origin unknown]


Jehad  var. Of *jihad.

Jehad  var. Of *jihad.


Jehovah  n. Hebrew name of god in the old testament. [hebrew yahveh]


Jehovah's witness  n. Member of a millenarian christian sect rejecting the supremacy of the state and religious institutions over personal conscience, faith, etc.


Jejune  adj. 1 intellectually unsatisfying; shallow, meagre, scanty, dry. 2 puerile. 3 (of land) barren. [latin jejunus]


Jejunum  n. Small intestine between the duodenum and ileum. [latin: related to *jejune]


Jekyll and hyde  n. Person having opposing good and evil personalities. [names of a character in a story by r. L. Stevenson]


Jell  v. Colloq. 1 a set as jelly. B (of ideas etc.) Take a definite form. 2 cohere. [back-formation from *jelly]


Jellaba  var. Of *djellaba.


Jellify  v. (-ies, -ied) turn into jelly; make or become like jelly.  jellification n.


Jelly  —n. (pl. -ies) 1 a (usu. Fruit-flavoured) translucent dessert set with gelatin. B similar preparation as a jam, condiment, or sweet (redcurrant jelly). C similar preparation from meat, bones, etc., and gelatin (marrowbone jelly). 2 any similar substance. 3 slang gelignite. —v. (-ies, -ied) (cause to) set as or in a jelly, congeal (jellied eels).  jelly-like adj. [french gelée from latin gelo freeze]


Jelly baby  n. Jelly-like baby-shaped sweet.


Jellyfish  n. (pl. Same or -es) marine animal with a jelly-like body and stinging tentacles.


Jemmy  n. (pl. -ies) burglar's short crowbar. [from the name james]


Jenny  n. (pl. -ies) 1 hist. = *spinning-jenny. 2 female donkey. [from the name janet]


Jenny-wren  n. Female wren.


Jeopardize  v. (also -ise) (-zing or -sing) endanger.


Jeopardy  n. Danger, esp. Severe. [obsolete french iu parti divided play]


Jerbil  var. Of *gerbil.


Jerboa  n. Small jumping desert rodent. [arabic]


Jeremiad  n. Doleful complaint or lamentation. [church latin: related to *jeremiah]


Jeremiah  n. Dismal prophet, denouncer of the times. [lamentations of jeremiah, in the old testament]


Jerk1  —n. 1 sharp sudden pull, twist, twitch, start, etc. 2 spasmodic muscular twitch. 3 (in pl.) Colloq. Exercises (physical jerks). 4 slang fool. —v. Move, pull, thrust, twist, throw, etc., with a jerk.  jerk off coarse slang masturbate. [imitative]


Jerk2  v. Cure (beef) by cutting it in long slices and drying it in the sun. [quechua echarqui dried fish in strips]


Jerkin  n. 1 sleeveless jacket. 2 hist. Man's close-fitting, esp. Leather, jacket. [origin unknown]


Jerky  adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 moving suddenly or abruptly. 2 spasmodic.  jerkily adv. Jerkiness n.


Jeroboam  n. Wine bottle of 4–12 times the ordinary size. [jeroboam in the old testament]


Jerry  n. (pl. -ies) slang 1 german (esp. Soldier). 2 germans collectively. [probably an alteration of german]


Jerry  n. (pl. -ies) slang chamber-pot. [probably an abbreviation of *jeroboam]


Jerry-builder  n. Incompetent builder using cheap materials.  jerry-building n. Jerry-built adj. [origin uncertain]


Jerrycan  n. (also jerrican) a kind of (orig. German) petrol- or water-can. [from *jerry]


Jersey  n. (pl. -s) 1 a knitted usu. Woollen pullover. B plain-knitted (orig. Woollen) fabric. 2 (jersey) light brown dairy cow from jersey. [jersey in the channel islands]


Jerusalem artichoke  n. 1 a kind of sunflower with edible tubers. 2 this as a vegetable. [corruption of italian girasole sunflower]


Jest  —n. 1 joke; fun. 2 a raillery, banter. B object of derision. —v. Joke; fool about.  in jest in fun. [latin gesta exploits]


Jester  n. Hist. Professional clown at a medieval court etc.


Jesuit  n. Member of the society of jesus, a roman catholic order. [latin jesus, founder of the christian religion]


Jesuitical  adj. 1 of the jesuits. 2 often offens. Equivocating, casuistic.

Jesus  int. Colloq. Exclamation of surprise, dismay, etc. [name of the founder of the christian religion]


Jet1  —n. 1 stream of water, steam, gas, flame, etc., shot esp. From a small opening. 2 spout or nozzle for this purpose. 3 jet engine or jet plane. —v. (-tt-) 1 spurt out in jets. 2 colloq. Send or travel by jet plane. [french jeter throw from latin jacto]


Jet2  n. (often attrib.) Hard black lignite often carved and highly polished. [french jaiet from gagai in asia minor]


Jet black  adj. & n. (as adj. Often hyphenated) deep glossy black.


Jet engine  n. Engine using jet propulsion, esp. Of an aircraft.


Jet lag  n. Exhaustion etc. Felt after a long flight across time zones.


Jet plane  n. Plane with a jet engine.


Jet-propelled  adj. 1 having jet propulsion. 2 very fast.


Jet propulsion  n. Propulsion by the backward ejection of a high-speed jet of gas etc.


Jetsam  n. Objects washed ashore, esp. Jettisoned from a ship. [contraction of *jettison]


Jet set  n. Wealthy people who travel widely, esp. For pleasure.  jet-setter n. Jet-setting n. & attrib. Adj.


Jettison  —v. 1 a throw (esp. Heavy material) overboard to lighten a ship etc. B drop (goods) from an aircraft. 2 abandon; get rid of. —n. Jettisoning. [anglo-french getteson: related to *jet1]


Jetty  n. (pl. -ies) 1 pier or breakwater to protect or defend a harbour, coast, etc. 2 landing-pier. [french jetee: related to *jet1]


Jew  n. 1 person of hebrew descent or whose religion is judaism. 2 slang offens. Miserly person. [greek ioudaios]


Usage  the stereotype conveyed in sense 2 is deeply offensive. It arose from historical associations of jews as moneylenders in medieval england.


Jewel  —n. 1 a precious stone. B this used in watchmaking. 2 jewelled personal ornament. 3 precious person or thing. —v. (-ll-; us -l-) (esp. As jewelled adj.) Adorn or set with jewels. [french]


Jeweler  n. (brit. Jeweller) maker of or dealer in jewels or jewellery.


Jeweller  n. (us jeweler) maker of or dealer in jewels or jewellery.


Jewellery  n. (also jewelry) rings, brooches, necklaces, etc., regarded collectively.


Jewess  n. Often offens. Woman or girl of hebrew descent or whose religion is judaism.


Jewish  adj. 1 of jews. 2 of judaism.  jewishness n.


Jewry  n. Jews collectively.


Jew's harp  n. Small musical instrument held between the teeth.


Jezebel  n. Shameless or immoral woman. [jezebel in the old testament]


Jib1  n. 1 triangular staysail. 2 projecting arm of a crane. [origin unknown]


Jib2  v. (-bb-) 1 (esp. Of a horse) stop and refuse to go on. 2 (foll. By at) show aversion to.  jibber n. [origin unknown]


Jibe1  var. Of *gibe.


Jibe2  v. (brit. Gybe) (-bing) 1 (of a fore-and-aft sail or boom) swing across. 2 cause (a sail) to do this. 3 (of a ship or its crew) change course so that this happens. [dutch]


Jiff  n. (also jiffy, pl. -ies) colloq. Short time; moment (in a jiffy). [origin unknown]


Jiffy bag  n. Propr. Padded envelope.


Jig  —n. 1 a lively leaping dance. B music for this. 2 device that holds a piece of work and guides the tools operating on it. —v. (-gg-) 1 dance a jig. 2 (often foll. By about) move quickly and jerkily up and down; fidget. 3 work on or equip with a jig or jigs. [origin unknown]


Jigger  n. 1 billiards colloq. Cue-rest. 2 a measure of spirits etc. B small glass holding this. [partly from *jig]


Jiggered  adj. Colloq. (as a mild oath) confounded (i'll be jiggered). [euphemism]


Jiggery-pokery  n. Colloq. Trickery; swindling. [origin uncertain]


Jiggle  —v. (-ling) (often foll. By about etc.) Shake or jerk lightly; fidget. —n. Light shake. [from *jig]


Jigsaw  n. 1 a (in full jigsaw puzzle) picture on board or wood etc. Cut into irregular interlocking pieces to be reassembled as a pastime. B problem consisting of various pieces of information. 2 mechanical fretsaw with a fine blade.

Jihad  n. (also jehad) muslim holy war against unbelievers. [arabic jihad]


Jilt  v. Abruptly reject or abandon (esp. A lover). [origin unknown]


Jim crow  n. Us colloq. 1 segregation of blacks. 2 offens. A black. [nickname]


Jim-jams  n.pl. 1 slang = *delirium tremens. 2 colloq. Nervousness; depression. [fanciful reduplication]


Jingle  —n. 1 mixed ringing or clinking noise. 2 a repetition of sounds in a phrase etc. B short catchy verse or song in advertising etc. —v. (-ling) 1 (cause to) make a jingling sound. 2 (of writing) be full of alliteration, rhymes, etc. [imitative]


Jingo  n. (pl. -es) supporter of war; blustering patriot.  by jingo! Mild oath.  jingoism n. Jingoist n. Jingoistic adj. [conjuror's word]


Jink  —v. 1 move elusively; dodge. 2 elude by dodging. —n. Dodging or eluding. [originally scots: imitative]


Jinnee  n. (also jinn, djinn) (pl. Jinn or djinn) (in muslim mythology) spirit in human or animal form having power over people. [arabic]


Jinx  colloq. —n. Person or thing that seems to cause bad luck. —v. (esp. As jinxed adj.) Subject to bad luck. [perhaps var. Of jynx wryneck, charm]


Jitter  colloq. —n. (the jitters) extreme nervousness. —v. Be nervous; act nervously.  jittery adj. Jitteriness n. [origin unknown]


Jitterbug  —n. 1 nervous person. 2 hist. Fast popular dance. —v. (-gg-) hist. Dance the jitterbug.


Jiu-jitsu  var. Of *ju-jitsu.


Jive  —n. 1 lively dance popular esp. In the 1950s. 2 music for this. —v. (-ving) dance to or play jive music.  jiver n. [origin uncertain]


Jnr.  Abbr. Junior.


Job  —n. 1 piece of work to be done; task. 2 position in, or piece of, paid employment. 3 colloq. Difficult task (had a job to find it). 4 slang crime, esp. A robbery. 5 state of affairs etc. (bad job). —v. (-bb-) 1 do jobs; do piece-work. 2 deal in stocks; buy and sell (stocks or goods). 3 deal corruptly with (a matter).  just the job colloq. Exactly what is wanted. Make a job (or good job) of do well. On the job colloq. 1 at work. 2 engaged in sexual intercourse. Out of a job unemployed. [origin unknown]


Jobber  n. 1 person who jobs. 2 hist. Principal or wholesaler on the stock exchange.


Usage  up to oct. 1986 jobbers were permitted to deal only with brokers, not directly with the public. From oct. 1986 the name ceased to be in official use (see *broker 2).


Jobbery  n. Corrupt dealing.


Jobbing  attrib. Adj. Freelance; pieceworking (jobbing gardener).


Jobcentre  n. Local government office advertising available jobs.


Job-hunt  v. Colloq. Seek employment.


Jobless  adj. Unemployed.  joblessness n.


Job lot  n. Mixed lot bought at auction etc.


Job's comforter  n. Person who intends to comfort but increases distress. [job in the old testament]


Jobs for the boys  n.pl. Colloq. Appointments for members of one's own group etc.


Job-sharing  n. Sharing of a full-time job by two or more people.  job-share n. & v.


Jobsheet  n. Sheet for recording details of jobs done.


Jock  n. Slang scotsman. [scots form of the name jack]


Jockey  —n. (pl. -s) rider in horse-races, esp. Professional. —v. (-eys, -eyed) 1 trick, cheat, or outwit. 2 (foll. By away, out, into, etc.) Manoeuvre (a person).  jockey for position manoeuvre for advantage. [diminutive of *jock]


Jockstrap  n. Support or protection for the male genitals, worn esp. In sport. [slang jock genitals]


Jocose  adj. Playful; jocular.  jocosely adv. Jocosity n. (pl. -ies). [latin jocus jest]


Jocular  adj. 1 fond of joking. 2 humorous.  jocularity n. (pl. -ies). Jocularly adv.


Jocund  adj. Literary merry, cheerful.  jocundity n. (pl. -ies). Jocundly adv. [french from latin jucundus pleasant]

Jodhpurs  n.pl. Riding breeches tight below the knee. [jodhpur in india]


Joe bloggs  n. Colloq. Hypothetical average man.


Jog  —v. (-gg-) 1 run slowly, esp. As exercise. 2 push or jerk, esp. Unsteadily. 3 nudge, esp. To alert. 4 stimulate (the memory). 5 (often foll. By on, along) trudge; proceed ploddingly (must jog on somehow). 6 (of a horse) trot. —n. 1 spell of jogging; slow walk or trot. 2 push, jerk, or nudge. [probably imitative]


Jogger  n. Person who jogs, esp. For exercise.


Joggle  —v. (-ling) move in jerks. —n. Slight shake.


Jogtrot  n. Slow regular trot.


John  n. Us slang lavatory. [from the name john]


John bull  n. England or the typical englishman. [name of a character in an 18th-c. Satire]


John dory  n. (pl. Same or -ies) edible marine fish. [see *dory]


Johnny  n. (pl. -ies) 1 slang condom. 2 colloq. Fellow; man. [diminutive of john]


Johnny-come-lately  n. Colloq. Newcomer; upstart.


Joie de vivre  n. Exuberance; high spirits. [french, = joy of living]


Join  —v. 1 (often foll. By to, together) put together; fasten, unite (with one or several things or people). 2 connect (points) by a line etc. 3 become a member of (a club, organization, etc.). 4 a take one's place with (a person, group, etc.). B (foll. By in, for, etc.) Take part with (others) in an activity etc. (joined them in prayer). 5 (often foll. By with, to) come together; be united. 6 (of a river etc.) Be or become connected or continuous with. —n. Point, line, or surface at which things are joined.  join battle begin fighting. Join forces combine efforts. Join hands 1 clasp hands. 2 combine in an action etc. Join in (also absol.) Take part in (an activity). Join up 1 enlist for military service. 2 (often foll. By with) unite, connect. [latin jungo junct-]


Joiner  n. 1 maker of finished wood fittings. 2 colloq. Person who joins an organization or who readily joins societies etc.  joinery n. (in sense 1).


Joint  —n. 1 place at which two or more things or parts of a structure are joined; device for joining these. 2 point at which two bones fit together. 3 division of an animal carcass as meat. 4 slang restaurant, bar, etc. 5 slang marijuana cigarette. 6 geol. Crack in rock. —adj. 1 held, done by, or belonging to, two or more persons etc. (joint mortgage; joint action). 2 sharing with another (joint author; joint favourite). —v. 1 connect by joint(s). 2 divide at a joint or into joints.  out of joint 1 (of a bone) dislocated. 2 out of order.  jointly adv. [french: related to *join]


Joint stock  n. Capital held jointly; common fund.


Joint-stock company  n. Company formed on the basis of a joint stock.


Jointure  —n. Estate settled on a wife by her husband for use after his death. —v. Provide with a jointure. [latin: related to *join]


Joist  n. Supporting beam in a floor, ceiling, etc. [french giste from latin jaceo lie]


Jojoba  n. Plant with seeds yielding an oily extract used in cosmetics etc. [mexican spanish]


Joke  —n. 1 thing said or done to cause laughter; witticism. 2 ridiculous person or thing. —v. (-king) make jokes; tease (only joking).  no joke colloq. Serious matter.  jokingly adv. Joky adj. (also jokey). Jokily adv. Jokiness n. [probably latin jocus jest]


Joker  n. 1 person who jokes. 2 slang person. 3 playing-card used in some games.


Jollify  v. (-ies, -ied) make merry.  jollification n.


Jollity  n. (pl. -ies) merrymaking; festivity. [french joliveté: related to *jolly1]


Jolly1  —adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 cheerful; merry. 2 festive, jovial. 3 colloq. Pleasant, delightful. —adv. Colloq. Very. —v. (-ies, -ied) (usu. Foll. By along) colloq. Coax or humour in a friendly way. —n. (pl. -ies) colloq. Party or celebration.  jollily adv. Jolliness n. [french jolif gay, pretty: perhaps related to *yule]

Jolly2  n. (pl. -ies) (in full jolly boat) clinker-built ship's boat smaller than a cutter. [origin unknown: perhaps related to *yawl]


Jolly roger  n. Pirates' black flag, usu. With skull and crossbones.


Jolt  —v. 1 disturb or shake (esp. In a moving vehicle) with a jerk. 2 shock; perturb. 3 move along jerkily. —n. 1 jerk. 2 surprise or shock.  jolty adj. (-ier, -iest). [origin unknown]


Jonah  n. Person who seems to bring bad luck. [jonah in the old testament]


Jonquil  n. Narcissus with small fragrant yellow or white flowers. [ultimately from latin juncus rush plant]


Josh  slang —v. 1 tease, banter. 2 indulge in ridicule. —n. Good-natured or teasing joke. [origin unknown]


Joss  n. Chinese idol. [ultimately from latin deus god]


Joss-stick  n. Incense-stick for burning.


Jostle  —v. (-ling) 1 (often foll. By away, from, against, etc.) Push against; elbow, esp. Roughly or in a crowd. 2 (foll. By with) struggle roughly. —n. Jostling. [from *joust]


Jot  —v. (-tt-) (usu. Foll. By down) write briefly or hastily. —n. Very small amount (not one jot). [greek *iota]


Jotter  n. Small pad or notebook.


Jotting  n. (usu. In pl.) Jotted note.


Joule  n. Si unit of work or energy. [joule, name of a physicist]


Journal  n. 1 newspaper or periodical. 2 daily record of events; diary. 3 book in which transactions and accounts are entered. 4 part of a shaft or axle that rests on bearings. [latin diurnalis *diurnal]


Journalese  n. Hackneyed writing characteristic of newspapers.


Journalism  n. Profession of writing for or editing newspapers etc.


Journalist  n. Person writing for or editing newspapers etc.  journalistic adj.


Journey  —n. (pl. -s) 1 act of going from one place to another, esp. At a long distance. 2 time taken for this (a day's journey). —v. (-s, -ed) make a journey. [french jornee day, day's work or travel, from latin diurnus daily]


Journeyman  n. 1 qualified mechanic or artisan who works for another. 2 derog. Reliable but not outstanding worker.


Joust  hist. —n. Combat between two knights on horseback with lances. —v. Engage in a joust.  jouster n. [french jouste from latin juxta near]


Jove  n. (in roman mythology) jupiter.  by jove! Exclamation of surprise etc. [latin jupiter jov-]


Jovial  adj. Merry, convivial, hearty.  joviality n. Jovially adv. [latin jovialis: related to *jove]


Jowl1  n. 1 jaw or jawbone. 2 cheek (cheek by jowl). [old english]


Jowl2  n. Loose hanging skin on the throat or neck.  jowly adj. [old english]


Joy  n. 1 (often foll. By at, in) pleasure; extreme gladness. 2 thing causing joy. 3 colloq. Satisfaction, success (got no joy).  joyful adj. Joyfully adv. Joyfulness n. Joyless adj. Joyous adj. Joyously adv. [french joie from latin gaudium]


Joyride  colloq. —n. Pleasure ride in esp. A stolen car. —v. (-ding; past -rode; past part -ridden) go for a joyride.  joyrider n.


Joystick  n. 1 colloq. Control column of an aircraft. 2 lever controlling movement of an image on a vdu screen etc.


Jp  abbr. Justice of the peace.


Jr.  Abbr. Junior.


Jubilant  adj. Exultant, rejoicing.  jubilance n. Jubilantly adv. Jubilation n. [latin jubilo shout]


Jubilee  n. 1 anniversary, esp. The 25th or 50th. 2 time of rejoicing. [hebrew, ultimately, = ram's-horn trumpet]


Judaic  adj. Of or characteristic of the jews. [greek: related to *jew]


Judaism  n. Religion of the jews.


Judas  n. Traitor. [judas iscariot who betrayed christ]


Judder  —v. Shake noisily or violently. —n. Juddering. [imitative: cf. Shudder]

Judge  —n. 1 public official appointed to hear and try legal cases. 2 person appointed to decide in a contest, dispute, etc. 3 a person who decides a question. B person regarded as having judgement of a specified type (am no judge; good judge of art). —v. (-ging) 1 form an opinion or judgement (about); estimate, appraise. 2 act as a judge (of). 3  a try (a case) at law. B pronounce sentence on. 4 (often foll. By to + infin. Or that + clause) conclude, consider. [latin judex judic-]


Judgement  n. (also judgment) 1 critical faculty; discernment (error of judgement). 2 good sense. 3 opinion or estimate (in my judgement). 4 sentence of a court of justice. 5 often joc. Deserved misfortune.  against one's better judgement contrary to what one really feels to be advisable.


Judgemental  adj. (also judgmental) 1 of or by way of judgement. 2 condemning, critical.  judgementally adv.


Judgement day  n. (in judaism, christianity, and islam) day on which mankind will be judged by god.


Judicature  n. 1 administration of justice. 2 judge's position. 3 judges collectively. [medieval latin judico judge]


Judicial  adj. 1 of, done by, or proper to a court of law. 2 having the function of judgement (judicial assembly). 3 of or proper to a judge. 4 impartial.  judicially adv. [latin judicium judgement]


Judiciary  n. (pl. -ies) judges of a state collectively.


Judicious  adj. Sensible, prudent.  judiciously adv.


Judo  n. Sport derived from ju-jitsu. [japanese, = gentle way]


Jug  —n. 1 deep vessel for liquids, with a handle and a lip for pouring. 2 contents of this. 3 slang prison. —v. (-gg-) (usu. As jugged adj.) Stew or boil (esp. Hare) in a casserole etc.  jugful n. (pl. -s). [origin uncertain]


Juggernaut  n. 1 large heavy lorry etc. 2 overwhelming force or object. [hindi jagannath, = lord of the world]


Juggle  —v. (-ling) 1 a (often foll. By with) keep several objects in the air at once by throwing and catching. B perform such feats with (balls etc.). 2 deal with (several activities) at once. 3 (often foll. By with) misrepresent or rearrange (facts) adroitly. —n. 1 juggling. 2 fraud.  juggler n. [french from latin jocus jest]


Jugoslav  var. Of *yugoslav.


Jugular  —adj. Of the neck or throat. —n. = *jugular vein. [latin jugulum collar-bone]


Jugular vein  n. Any of several large veins in the neck carrying blood from the head.


Juice  n. 1 liquid part of vegetables or fruits. 2 animal fluid, esp. A secretion (gastric juice). 3 colloq. Petrol; electricity. [french from latin]


Juicy  adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 full of juice; succulent. 2 colloq. Interesting; racy, scandalous. 3 colloq. Profitable.  juicily adv. Juiciness n.


Ju-jitsu  n. (also jiu-jitsu, ju-jutsu) japanese system of unarmed combat and physical training. [japanese jujutsu gentle skill]


Ju-ju  n. 1 charm or fetish of some w. African peoples. 2 supernatural power attributed to this. [perhaps french joujou toy]


Jujube  n. Small flavoured jelly-like lozenge. [greek zizuphon]


Ju-jutsu  var. Of *ju-jitsu.


Jukebox  n. Coin-operated record-playing machine. [black juke disorderly]


Jul.  Abbr. July.


Julep  n. 1 a sweet drink, esp. As a vehicle for medicine. B medicated drink as a mild stimulant etc. 2 us iced and flavoured spirits and water (mint julep). [persian gulab rose-water]


Julian  adj. Of julius caesar. [latin julius]


Julian calendar  n. Calendar introduced by julius caesar, with a year of 365 days, every fourth year having 366.


Julienne  —n. Vegetables cut into short thin strips. —adj. Cut into thin strips. [french from name jules or julien]


Juliet cap  n. Small net skullcap worn by brides etc. [juliet in shakespeare's romeo & juliet]


July  n. (pl. Julys) seventh month of the year. [latin julius caesar]

Jumble  —v. (-ling) (often foll. By up) confuse; mix up; muddle. —n. 1 confused state or heap; muddle. 2 articles in a jumble sale. [probably imitative]


Jumble sale  n. Sale of second-hand articles, esp. For charity.


Jumbo  n. (pl. -s) colloq. 1 (often attrib.) Large animal (esp. An elephant), person, or thing (jumbo packet). 2 (in full jumbo jet) large airliner for several hundred passengers. [probably from *mumbo-jumbo]


Usage  in sense 2, jumbo is usu. Applied specifically to the boeing 747.


Jump  —v. 1 rise off the ground etc. By sudden muscular effort in the legs. 2 (often foll. By up, from, in, out, etc.) Move suddenly or hastily (jumped into the car). 3 jerk or twitch from shock or excitement etc. 4 a change, esp. Advance in status or rise, rapidly (prices jumped). B cause to do this. 5 (often foll. By about) change the subject etc. Rapidly. 6 pass over (an obstacle etc.) By jumping. 7 skip (a passage in a book etc.). 8 cause (a horse etc.) To jump. 9 (foll. By to, at) reach (a conclusion) hastily. 10 (of a train) leave (the rails). 11 pass (a red traffic-light etc.). 12 get on or off (a train etc.) Quickly, esp. Illegally or dangerously. 13 attack (a person) unexpectedly. —n. 1 act of jumping. 2 sudden jerk caused by shock or excitement. 3 abrupt rise in amount, value, status, etc. 4 obstacle to be jumped. 5 a sudden transition. B gap in a series, logical sequence, etc.  jump at accept eagerly. Jump bail fail to appear for trial having been released on bail. Jump down a person's throat colloq. Reprimand or contradict a person fiercely. Jump the gun colloq. Begin prematurely. Jump on colloq. Attack or criticize severely. Jump out of one's skin colloq. Be extremely startled. Jump the queue take unfair precedence. Jump ship (of a seaman) desert. Jump to it colloq. Act promptly. One jump ahead one stage further on than a rival etc. [imitative]


Jumped-up  adj. Colloq. Upstart.


Jumper1  n. 1 knitted pullover. 2 loose outer jacket worn by sailors. 3 us pinafore dress. [probably jump short coat]


Jumper2  n. 1 person or animal that jumps. 2 short wire used to make or break an electrical circuit.


Jumping bean  n. Seed of a mexican plant that jumps with the movement of a larva inside.


Jump-jet  n. Vertical take-off jet aircraft.


Jump-lead  n. Cable for conveying current from the battery of one vehicle to that of another.


Jump-off  n. Deciding round in showjumping.


Jump-start  —v. Start (a vehicle) by pushing it or with jump-leads. —n. Act of jump-starting.


Jump suit  n. One-piece garment for the whole body.


Jumpy  adj. (-ier, -iest) 1 nervous; easily startled. 2 making sudden movements.  jumpiness n.


Jun.  Abbr. 1 june. 2 junior.


Junction  n. 1 joint; joining-point. 2 place where railway lines or roads meet. 3 joining. [latin: related to *join]


Junction box  n. Box containing a junction of electric cables etc.


Juncture  n. 1 critical convergence of events; point of time (at this juncture). 2 joining-point. 3 joining.


June  n. Sixth month of the year. [latin junius from juno, name of a goddess]


Jungian  —adj. Of the swiss psychologist carl jung or his theories. —n. Supporter of jung or of his theories.


Jungle  n. 1 a land overgrown with tangled vegetation, esp. In the tropics. B an area of this. 2 wild tangled mass. 3 place of bewildering complexity, confusion, or struggle.  law of the jungle state of ruthless competition.  jungly adj. [hindi from sanskrit]


Junior  —adj. 1 (often foll. By to) inferior in age, standing, or position. 2 the younger (esp. Appended to the name of a son for distinction from his father). 3 of the lower or lowest position (junior partner). 4  (of a school) for younger pupils, usu. Aged 7–11. —n. 1 junior person. 2 person at the lowest level (in an office etc.). [latin, comparative of juvenis young]

Junior common room  n. (also junior combination room) 1 common-room for undergraduates in a college. 2 undergraduates of a college collectively.


Juniper  n. Evergreen shrub or tree with prickly leaves and dark-purple berry-like cones. [latin juniperus]


Junk1  —n. 1 discarded articles; rubbish. 2 anything regarded as of little value. 3 slang narcotic drug, esp. Heroin. —v. Discard as junk. [origin unknown]


Junk2  n. Flat-bottomed sailing-vessel in the china seas. [javanese djong]


Junk bond  n. Bond bearing high interest but deemed to be a risky investment.


Junket  —n. 1 pleasure outing. 2 official's tour at public expense. 3 sweetened and flavoured milk curds. 4 feast. —v. (-t-) feast, picnic. [french jonquette rush-basket (used for junket 3 and 4), from latin juncus rush]


Junk food  n. Food, such as sweets and crisps, with low nutritional value.


Junkie  n. Slang drug addict.


Junk mail  n. Unsolicited advertising matter sent by post.


Junk shop  n. Second-hand or cheap antiques shop.


Junta  n. (usu. Military) clique taking power in a coup d'état. [spanish: related to *join]


Jural  adj. 1 of law. 2 of rights and obligations. [latin jus jur- law, right]


Jurassic  geol. —adj. Of the second period of the mesozoic era. —n. This era or system. [french from jura mountains]


Juridical  n. 1 of judicial proceedings. 2 relating to the law. [latin jus jur- law, dico say]


Jurisdiction  n. 1 (often foll. By over, of) administration of justice. 2 a legal or other authority. B extent of this; territory it extends over.  jurisdictional adj.


Jurisprudence  n. Science or philosophy of law.  jurisprudential adj.


Jurist  n. Expert in law.  juristic adj.


Juror  n. 1 member of a jury. 2 person taking an oath.


Jury  n. (pl. -ies) 1 body of usu. Twelve people giving a verdict in a court of justice. 2 body of people awarding prizes in a competition.


Jury-box  n. Enclosure for the jury in a lawcourt.


Jury-rigged  adj. Naut. Having temporary makeshift rigging. [origin uncertain]


Just  —adj. 1 morally right or fair. 2 (of treatment etc.) Deserved (just reward). 3 well-grounded; justified (just anger). 4 right in amount etc.; proper. —adv. 1 exactly (just what i need). 2 a little time ago; very recently (has just seen them). 3 colloq. Simply, merely (just good friends; just doesn't make sense). 4 barely; no more than (just managed it). 5 colloq. Positively; indeed (just splendid; won't i just tell him!). 6 quite (not just yet).  just about colloq. Almost exactly; almost completely. Just in case as a precaution. Just now 1 at this moment. 2 a little time ago. Just the same = all the same. Just so 1 exactly arranged (everything just so). 2 it is exactly as you say.  justly adv. Justness n. [latin justus from jus right]


Justice  n. 1 justness, fairness. 2 authority exercised in the maintenance of right. 3 judicial proceedings (brought to justice; court of justice). 4 magistrate; judge.  do justice to 1 treat fairly. 2 appreciate properly. Do oneself justice perform at one's best. With justice reasonably. [latin justitia]


Justice of the peace  n. Unpaid lay magistrate appointed to hear minor cases.


Justifiable  adj. Able to be justified.  justifiably adv.


Justify  v. (-ies, -ied) 1 show the justice or correctness of (a person, act, assertion, etc.). 2 (esp. In passive) cite or constitute adequate grounds for (conduct, a claim, etc.); vindicate. 3 (as justified adj.) Just, right (justified in assuming). 4 printing adjust (a line of type) to give even margins.  justification n. Justificatory adj.

Jut  —v. (-tt-) (often foll. By out, forth) protrude, project. —n. Projection. [var. Of *jet1]


Jute  n. 1 fibre from the bark of an e. Indian plant, used esp. For sacking, mats, etc. 2 plant yielding this. [bengali]


Juvenile  —adj. 1 a youthful. B of or for young people. 2 often derog. Immature (juvenile behaviour). —n. 1 young person. 2 actor playing a juvenile part. [latin juvenis young]


Juvenile court  n. Court for children under 17.


Juvenile delinquency  n. Offences committed by people below the age of legal responsibility.  juvenile delinquent n.


Juvenilia  n.pl. Author's or artist's youthful works.


Juxtapose  v. (-sing) 1 place (things) side by side. 2 (foll. By to, with) place (a thing) beside another.  juxtaposition n. Juxtapositional adj. [latin juxta next, pono put]

© Times of U














print this page | to top of page | previous page



















Advertise with us | About us | Contact us

© Times of Ukraine® Times of U®. All rights reserved





Реклама у нас | Про нас | Пишить нам





























Online platform - Онлайн платформа

The Times of Ukraine

"Таймс оф Юкрэйн"

"Часи України"

"Времена Украины"



Times of Ukraine®

Times of U®



When using materials of Times of Ukraine/Times of U in full or in part, the reference or the hyperlink to the Times of Ukraine/Times of U is obligatory. Not for commercial use. При повному або частковому використанні матеріалів Times of Ukraine посилання/активне посилання на проект обов'язкове