актуальність насамперед

 

 

 

 

 

actuality first

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Open

Social Tribune

 

 

 

 

Відкрита

Громадська

Трибуна

Головна - Home

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Політика - Политика - Politics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[ opinion ]

The rise of Putinism

The United States and the European Union announced new sanctions against Russian companies and banks over Moscow’s support for separatists in Ukraine.

By Fareed Zakaria (U.S.)

When the Cold War ended, Hungary occupied a special place in the story of the revolutions of 1989. It was one of the first countries in the Soviet orbit to abandon communism and embrace liberal democracy. Today it is again a trendsetter, becoming the first European country to denounce and distance itself from liberal democracy. It is adopting a new system and set of values that are best exemplified by Vladimir Putin’s Russia but are finding echoes in other countries as well.

Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban explained that his country is determined to build a new political model - illiberal democracy. This caught my eye because, in 1997, I wrote an essay in Foreign Affairs using that same phrase to describe a dangerous trend. Democratic governments, often popular, were using their mandates to erode individual rights, the separation of powers and the rule of law. But even I never imagined that a national leader — from Europe no less — would use the term as a badge of honor.

“The most popular topic in thinking today is trying to understand how systems that are not Western, not liberal, not liberal democracies and perhaps not even democracies can nevertheless make their nations successful,” Orban said. For him, the world changed fundamentally in 2008 with what he calls “the great Western financial collapse.” Since then, he argues, American power has been in decline and liberal values today embody “corruption, sex and violence.” Western Europe has become a land of “freeloaders on the backs of welfare systems.” The illiberal role models for the future, he explains, are Russia, Turkey, China, Singapore and India.

Leaving aside his odd list (India?), Orban’s actions over the past few years demonstrate that his own role model has been Russia under Putin. Orban has enacted and implemented in Hungary a version of what can best be described as “Putinism.” To understand it, we need to go back to its founder.

When he came to power in 2000, Putin seemed a tough, smart, competent manager, someone who was determined to bring stability to Russia — which was reeling from internal chaos, economic stagnation and a default in 1998. He sought to integrate Russia into the world and wanted good relations with the West, asking Washington for Russian membership in the World Trade Organization and even NATO. His administration had technocrats who were Western liberals, well versed in free markets and open trade.

Over time, however, Putin established order in the country while presiding over a booming economy as oil prices quadrupled under his watch. He began creating a repressive system of political, economic and social control to maintain his power. As he faced opposition, particularly in the parliamentary elections of 2011, Putin recognized that he needed more than just brute force to defeat his opponents. He needed an ideology of power and began articulating one in speeches, enacting legislation and using his office to convey adherence to a set of values.

© Times of Ukraine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

друк сторінки | верх сторінки | попередня сторінка

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© Times of Ukraine. All rights reserved

 

 

 

 

Реклама у нас | Про нас | Пишіть нам

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Незалежний інформаційний проект

The Times of Ukraine - "Таймс оф Юкрэйн"

- "Таймс оф Юкрейн" - "Часи України"

- "Времена Украины"

 

 

Times of Ukraine

 

 

При повному або частковому використанні матеріалів Times of Ukraine посилання/активне посилання на проект обов'язкове